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PAST PERFECT:                        
In this lesson, we will learn how to form the past perfect tense and when to use the past perfect tense.  In addition, we will go over how to form negatives in the past perfect tense and discuss the differences between the present perfect tense, past perfect tense and future perfect tense.                        
Forming the Past Perfect Tense:                        
The past perfect consists of two verbs: helping verb (had) and main verb (past participle).                        

Subject + had+ past participle/III form of irregular verb = Past Perfect Tense

When to use the Past Perfect?                        
The past perfect takes place before another past action.                        
Suddenly the pirate remembered where he had hidden the treasure. (So the past action is "remembered", and past perfect is "had hidden")                                

I noticed that the pirate had left his map behind. (past action is "noticed",and the past perfect is "had left")

When he reached the island, the cruise ship had already left. (past action is "reached", and past perfect is "had left")

Negatives in the Past Perfect Tense                        
We form the negative by adding not after the helping verb had.                        
had + not + past participle                        
Contraction (or short form):                        
had not = hadn’t                        
The pirates stood on the X, and they still had not seen the treasure.

We hadn’t been at the meeting long when Roger arrived.
Differences between the present perfect tense, past perfect tense and future perfect tense                        
The present perfect tense connects the past with present.                        
The past perfect tense takes place before another action in the past.                        
The future perfect tense takes place before another action in the future.                        
Since last Tuesday, I have woken up early. (present past tense)                        
Before this week, however, I had never woken up so early. (past perfect tense)                        
By the end of this week I will have woken up early four times. (future perfect tense)                        

Tense Form
present perfect tense has/have + past participle
past perfect tense had + past participle
future perfect tense will have + past participle


Structure of past perfect simple
positive negative question
I'd (I had) seen him. I hadn't (had not) seen him.  Had I seen him? 
You'd done it.  You hadn't done it.  Had you seen her? 
We'd been there.  We hadn't been there.  Had we finished it? 
They'd eaten it.  They hadn't eaten it.  Had they been there?
He'd (he had) gone. He hadn't (had not) gone. Had he been here?
She'd (she had) gone. She hadn't gone. Had she finished?
It'd (it had) gone. It hadn't gone. Had it gone?
Past perfect simple - common mistakes
Common mistakes
Correct version Why?
I didn't been to London. I hadn't been to London. The helping verb had (negative - hadn't) is used in the past perfect.
When I saw him, I noticed that he had a haircut. When I saw him I noticed that he had had a haircut. The action (haircut) which happened before another past action must be put into the past perfect to make the time order clear to the listener.
He told me has been to Australia.
He told me he had been to Australia. His original words were: ''I have been to Australia.'' However, in reported speech we move the tense back, the present perfect (have been) becomes past perfect (had been)


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